Paul McGreevy is a veterinarian and ethologist, and Professor of Animal Behaviour and Welfare at the University of New England in Australia. A few years back, Dr. McGreevy wrote the following in The Conversation:
“Given there is no evidence to show that whipping horses doesn’t hurt, I decided to find out whether having my leg struck with a racing whip, as hard as jockeys whip horses, would cause me pain and distress.
“Well, the answer is a resounding ‘yes’, and the thermographic images I took clearly show heat at the site of impact. In the image below you can see white areas of inflammation in my upper leg 30 minutes after it was struck – only once.”
McGreevy concludes: “[W]e must assume that, just as I felt pain and distress from the impact of the padded whip, similar whipping in a horse would also cause pain and distress.” Case closed, again.